showcases outstanding academic research in the field of business administration and management.

AWAKE stands for Academic Wisdom And Knowledge Edition

AWAKE supports academic excellence that combines vigor and relevance


Constraining temptation: How specific and general rules mitigate
the effect of personal gain on unethical behavior

Laetitia B. Muldera, Floor Rinka, Jennifer Jordanb
University of Groningen, the Netherlands
IMD, Switserland

Rules are often installed in order to constrain unethical behavior. Rules can be framed either in specific (“Don’t accepts gifts from clients.”) or general terms (“Don’t engage in conflicts of interest.”). The current investigation examines the effect of specific and general rules on unethical behavior and how this effect depends on personal gain resulting from the unethical behavior. The results of three preregistered experiments suggest that both specific and general rules counteract
the increase in unethical behavior induced by high personal gain. Although the results were not fully consistent across all studies, specific rules appear more successful in doing this than general rules. In Studies 1 and 3, when personal gain from unethical behavior was (extremely) high,
specific rules were more successful in reducing unethical behavior than were general rules. Results of Study 2 suggest that the larger effect of specific rules (compared to general rules) is caused by specific rules preventing people from engaging in moral rationalizations that justify
their unethical behavior. A meta-analysis across all studies confirms this overall pattern. This research contributes to theory on rules, ethical codes, and the influence of personal incentives from unethical behavior.

Link to Constraining Temptation

Demonstrability, difficulty and persuasion: An experimental study
of advice taking

Robert Hoffmanna, Thomas Chesneyb, Swee-Hoon Chuahc, Florian Kockd, Jeremy Larnerb

Behavioural Business Lab, School of Economics, Finance and Marketing, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.
Nottingham University Business School, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG8 1BB, UK.
Tasmanian School of Business and Economics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia
Copenhagen Business School, 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark

Self-interested paid advisors should try to sell their solutions no matter how they came about. However, we present evidence that advisor persuasiveness depends on two dimensions of their prior problem solving: solution difficulty and demonstrability. We report a laboratory experiment with repeated advisor-client interactions where both these dimensions are independently varied. Persuasion rises in solution demonstrability and falls in difficulty. The reason is non-optimising
behaviour: Advisors lacking in confidence fail to conceal difficult problem solving and those receiving their advice baulk when the proposed solution lacks objective success criteria irrespective of its promise. Our findings suggest differential prospects for persuasion and selling of different kinds of products, services and ideas.

Link to Demonstrability, difficulty and persuasion

Organizational Ambidexterity: Cost-Effective Service Excellence, Service Robots, and Artificial Intelligence

Author: Jochen Wirtz

National University of Singapore

Although the general view is that service excellence and cost-effectiveness are in conflict, there are organizations that achieve both. The term cost-effective service excellence
(CESE) refers to organizations that are simultaneously among the best performers in their competitive set in terms of customer satisfaction and productivity. Celebrated organizations that achieved CESE include Amazon (online retailer, US), Narayana Health (hospital group, India), Ristorante D’O (Michelin-starred restaurant, Italy), Singapore Airlines, and The Vanguard Group (investment management group, US). Illustrations on how these organizations achieved CESE will be used throughout this article.



AUTHOR: Jang Sujin

INSEAD Business School

Cultural Brokerage and Creative Performance in Multicultural TeamsThis paper presents a novel theoretical framework of how members of multicultural teams leverage their diverse knowledge to produce creative outcomes.

The author develops and tests a model of cultural brokerage, which she defines as the act of facilitating interactions between actors across cultural boundaries. She finds that team members with multicultural backgrounds engage in cultural brokerage on behalf of monocultural team members. Among multiculturals, “cultural insiders”— those whose cultural background overlaps with other team members’— brokered by integrating knowledge from different cultures, whereas “cultural outsiders”— those whose cultural background has no overlap with any other team members’— brokered by eliciting knowledge from different cultures.Both integrating and eliciting significantly enhanced creative performance at the team level. These findings advance our understanding of the process of creativity in culturally diverse teams.

Click to access culture-brokerage-and-creative-performance-in-multicultural-teams.pdf

Walking Through Jelly:Language Proficiency,Emotions, and Disrupted Collaboration in Global Work

AUTHORS: Tsedal Beyene, Pamela J. Hinds, Catherine Durnell Cramton

Harvard Business School

In an ethnographic study comprised of interviews and concurrent observations of 145 globally distributed members of nine project teams of an organization, we found that uneven proficiency in English, the lingua franca, disrupted collaboration for both native and non-native speakers. Although all team members spoke English, different levels of fluency contributed to tensions on these teams. As nonnative English speakers attempted to counter the apprehension they felt when having to speak English and native English speakers fought against feeling excluded and devalued, a cycle of negative emotion ensued and disrupted interpersonal relationships on these teams. We describe in detail how emotions and actions evolved recursively as coworkers sought to relieve themselves of negative emotions prompted by the lingua franca mandate and inadvertently behaved in ways that triggered negative responses in distant coworkers. Our results add to the scant literature on the role of emotions in collaborative relationships in organizations and suggest that organizational policies can set in motion a cycle of negative emotions that interfere with collaborative work.

Click to access global-collaboration-language-proficiency.pdf